High blood pressure, also known as high blood pressure, occurs when the force of blood against the arteries (blood vessels) is too high and interferes with circulation. World Hypertension Day, May 17, was created to alert people to the importance of preventing the disease. According to the Brazilian Society of Cardiology (SBC), controlling blood pressure reduces the risk of stroke by 42% and myocardial infarction by 15%.
Also according to SBC, the disease affects approximately 30% of the adult population worldwide and affects 25% of Brazilians. In addition, hypertension is the main risk factor for chronic kidney disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, dementia. It is recommended to always be alert as the condition is mostly asymptomatic. Symptoms usually appear when the pressure increases rapidly and exaggeratedly, and include headache, dizziness, blurred vision, malaise, ringing in the ears, blurred vision.
Considered as a multifactorial disease, that is to say in which several causes act for its appearance, hypertension can be triggered by the absence of physical exercise in daily life, such as a diet high in salt, obesity, cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. Unimed Vitória cardiologist Rovana Agrizzi explains that unregulated sleep, use of oral contraceptives and steroids and anabolic steroids are also risk factors for developing high blood pressure.
For retiree Getúlio Santos, 65, high blood pressure is constantly monitored. “I wake up and take a cocktail of drugs every morning, two of which are to control my hypertension. If I forget to take it, I will have consequences. I also can’t eat everything I always want, because when you understand the seriousness of the disease, you start to take care of yourself seriously.
People who have parents who suffer from the disease are more likely to suffer from hypertension. People of African descent have a higher risk of complications from the disease. Additionally, aging, emotional stress, and a more hectic lifestyle increase the risk that people will become hypertensive. Ultra-processed foods such as canned foods are high in sodium and should be avoided.
The treatment of hypertension is based on a wide variety of antihypertensives. The cardiology specialist comments that there are options for the general population. “We have modern, more expensive drugs and more accessible drugs, both in the SUS and in popular pharmacies, where we can control high blood pressure. The patient must follow the prescription and return to the doctor for this follow-up”.
It is possible to prevent the onset of the disease or at least delay the period of onset with a healthy diet, increasing the consumption of vegetables such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals and controlling weight . Genetic factors are not reversible: those who have hypertensive parents or uncles cannot change this condition or delay chronological age, i.e. aging. What can be done is delay metabolic aging by controlling glucose, cholesterol values and being physically active.